Two women who would change the face of royalty in Europe in the 20th century - Queen Wilhelmina with her daughter, Princess Juliana, in 1912. Their successful reigns, along with that of Juliana's daughter Beatrix, made female rule the norm in the Netherlands
Juliana Louise Emma Marie Wilhelmina had been born in 1909, the only child of Queen Wilhelmina and her consort, Heinrich. Wilhelmina had been queen since the age of 10 and wasn't shy about showing her strong personality and determined views. The birth of her only daughter had assured a succession that was about to run out - Wilhelmina had no surviving siblings to help provide heirs. Juliana, in 1914, was about to start her formal education and the next year a classroom was set up at the Noordeinde Palace for the princess to learn alongside children of her own age. While the First World War raged, Juliana learned ready for her own accession which would come in 1948 when her mother stepped aside in her favour. Both queens, along with the third woman to rule the Netherlands as a regnant, were popular and successful at the role assigned them because of a lack of male heirs. And they made sure to use their power to ensure that future generations would take the throne by birth order and not gender. The Dutch heir of 1914 was part of a triumvirate of strong queens who changed the face of European monarchy.